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Music Lessons and Brain Function

The cognitive benefits of early musical study.

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Those childhood music lessons could pay off decades later, even for those who no longer play an instrument, by keeping the mind sharper as people age, according to a preliminary study [Neuropsychology, 25, (3)].

The study recruited 70 healthy adults ages 60-83. They were divided into groups based on their level of musical experience. The musicians performed better on several cognitive tests than individuals who had never studied an instrument or learned how to read music.

"Musical activity throughout life may serve as a challenging cognitive exercise, making your brain fitter and more capable of accommodating the challenges of aging," said lead researcher Brenda Hanna-Pladdy, PhD, who conducted the study with cognitive psychologist Alicia MacKay, PhD, at the University of Kansas Medical Center. "Since studying an instrument requires years of practice and learning, it may create alternate connections in the brain that could compensate for cognitive declines as we get older."

While much research has been done on the cognitive benefits of musical activity by children, this is the first study to examine whether those benefits can extend across a lifetime, said Dr. Hanna-Pladdy.

The researchers divided the study participants into three groups: individuals with no musical training, those with one to nine years of musical study, and those with at least 10 years of musical training. All of the participants had similar levels of education and fitness and didn't show any evidence of Alzheimer's disease.

All of the musicians were amateurs who began playing an instrument at about age 10. More than half played the piano, while one-fourth had studied woodwind instruments such as the flute or clarinet. Smaller numbers played stringed, percussion or brass instruments.

The high-level musicians who had studied the longest performed the best on the cognitive tests, followed by the low-level musicians and non-musicians, revealing a trend relating to years of musical practice. The high-level musicians had statistically significant higher scores than the non-musicians on cognitive tests relating to visuospatial memory, naming objects and cognitive flexibility.

The brain functions measured by the tests typically decline as the body ages and more dramatically deteriorate in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's. The results "suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the lifespan on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age," the researchers reported.

Half of the high-level musicians still played an instrument at the time of the study, but they didn't perform better on the cognitive tests than the other advanced musicians who had stopped playing years earlier. This suggests the duration of musical study was more important than whether musicians continued playing at an advanced age, said Dr. Hanna-Pladdy, who is now on faculty at Emory University School of Medicine.

"Based on previous research and our study results, we believe that both the years of musical participation and the age of acquisition are critical," she stated. "There are crucial periods in brain plasticity that enhance learning, which may make it easier to learn a musical instrument before a certain age and thus may have a larger impact on brain development."

The preliminary study was correlational, meaning that the higher cognitive performance of the musicians couldn't be conclusively linked to their years of musical study. More research is needed to explore that possible link, the authors said.




     

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